Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking plied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Changes in controls protection, models risk, and ing.
Impulsivity was not related to decision-making performance.
Open in a separate window Note. One attempt to quantify behavioral drinking employed blood alcohol concentration BAC level, such that a 0. For the typical adult, this pattern corresponds to consuming five or more drinks maleor four or more drinks femalein about two hours.
This definition of binge drinking is similar to many used in epidemiological studies, which employ quantity BACconsumption amounts, and episode duration. The definition does not specify, however, the time period or number of binging occurrences that would describe a long-term binge-drinking practice.
These different time-frames emphasize various aspects of binge-drinking patterns, but their use inhibits direct comparison among findings.
The most informative time-frame appears to be within the past 6 months, as it is an optimal period to link alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems Hartley et al. A past 6 months time-frame for college samples captures the vacation time of the academic calendar during which students would be more apt to binge drink.
Although longer time frames have yet to be analyzed, the ability to recall consumption amounts and frequencies accurately e. The goal in selecting an optimal time frame associated with a binge-drinking pattern is to optimize the accuracy of self-reported drinking amounts, while also capturing an accurate representation of this problematic drinking pattern.
Further, employing a multiple binging occurrences evaluation strengthens the definition as these attributes together integrate the quantifiable dimensions of binge drinking.
Of the total Other factors that predict binging include the following: The younger adults in this sample 18—25 years evinced the highest rate of binge-drinking episodes in the yearwhereas individuals older than 55 years had the lowest rate of binge-drinking episodes Naimi et al.
Differences in the prevalence estimates CAS vs. Most epidemiological reports indicate that men account for the majority of binge drinkers Cranford et al.
Racial differences were reported. African Americans constituted the lowest binge-drinking racial group, with fewer than five episodes per person per year Naimi et al. The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALDH2, Chromosome 12 that is prevalent in Asian populations fosters severe and predominately negative reactions to a moderate dose of alcohol compared with a heterozygous or individual without the allele Cook et al.
Studies of these factors typically employ drinking definitions that are specialized for the particular variable or measure used, so that result comparisons need to be made from this perspective.
However, these variables taken in the context of their roles as mediators and moderators of alcohol consumption are potentially important indices of future binge drinking and are reviewed here to provide appropriate background for their effects.
Alcohol Expectancies Alcohol impairs the functioning of a variety of domains, including memory, judgment, and behavior Nelson et al. It diminishes eye movements Blekher et al.
These direct influences of alcohol consumption, however, vary in magnitude as a function of amount ingested and individual differences in alcohol expectancies. A study of undergraduates found that mood was affected by alcohol intake: Men more often reported social-situational enhancements e.
Expectancy effects can be manipulated: Alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy have been proposed to be significant predictors of drinking styles. Thus, beliefs about alcohol effects appear to contribute to the experience of drinking.
Perception of Drunkenness Inebriation is another important factor related to binge drinking, and it is often reported as the basis for binging Wechsler et al. However, alcohol drinkers misbelieve that standard mixed drinks are more potent than standard servings of wine or beer.
Induced public self-awareness stimulated by exposure to mirrors and a camera was hypothesized to increase salience of the situational behavioral standard i.
Although the biphasic response may have been produced by the binge pattern of consumption, the authors speculated that the differential sensitivity between binge and nonbinge drinkers may have contributed to the enhanced risk for the development of alcohol-use disorders and the acquisition of binge-drinking patterns.
Students often seek out environments that facilitate binge drinking Clapp et al. Indeed, peer relationships can be a risk factor for increased alcohol consumption, as collegiate living arrangements—especially fraternities and sororities—are a significant correlate of binge drinking.
Binge drinking can affect quality of life in terms of general health. These findings appear to reflect the generally negative consequences of alcohol abuse but at an earlier stage in poor health development Okoro et al.
In contrast, the benefits of light and moderate alcohol consumption have been well documented for stress reduction, mood enhancement, reduced depression symptoms, improved functioning in the elderly Baum-Baicker, ; Pernanen,as well as for protection against coronary artery disease Sacco et al.tion and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community drinking habits of more than 40, college students, it did not answer the question regarding the drinking habits of College Factors That Influence Drinking.
Heavy Episodic Drinking and Sexual Aggression Among Male College Students: The Protective Influence of Church Attendance J. B. Kingree, Martie Thompson, and Emily Ruetz A developmental study of heavy episodic drinking among college students: The role of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors.
A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for.
This mixed-methods study qualitatively (n = 13—convenience) explored contextual factors influencing decisions to drink responsibly, and quantitatively (n = —random) assessed the prevalence of these factors and whether they varied as a function of sex and binge-drinking status.
Multivariate Analyses of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students L. Mickey Fenzel Journal of College Student Development, Volume 46, Number 2, March/April The present study examines whether such factors as the use of.
plied to explain variation in college students’ heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protec- tive factors and risk factors .