Eisenhardt 's methodological work. Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches.
Designing Studies in Biomedical Research Determining the presence or absence of a sex difference requires consideration of the estrous cycles of female animals; if the estrous cycle is not considered, sex differences might exist but not be detected, as a result of averaging over the cycle Stoffel et al.
Mechanistic studies are also needed to definitively assess sex differences or lack thereof in animal experiments; for example, a particular drug or other intervention might produce the same effects in both sexes but act by different mechanisms Liu et al.
Furthermore, multiple sex-specific differences can have opposing effects and cancel each other out, preventing observation Palaszynski et al. If a sex difference is observed in Accounting case studies journal animal model, it is important to test for the contribution of sex hormones. A basic experimental design might involve ten groups of mice: A simpler option is to include females representing only two parts of the cycle, typically estrus and diestrus Becker et al.
Furthermore, as some mammals exhibit synchrony of ovulation, females should be housed to prevent close contact between mice ovulating on different days Meziane et al. In animal models of TBI, estrous cycle appears to have little influence on outcome Wagner et al. But estrous cycle effects have been important in studies of immune function see Gendered Innovation 2 below.
Sampling Female Animals during Pregnancy or Pseudopregnancy. TBI researchers who sampled male rats, normally cycling female rats, and pseudopregnant female rats found that edema was most severe in males, less severe in normally cycling females, and least severe in pseudopregnant females Roof et al.
Progesterone levels are known to be lowest in males, higher in normally cycling females, and highest in pregnant or pseudopregnant females, which suggested to researchers that progesterone may protect against edema Meffre et al.
In animal models of TBI, ovariectomy reduces the survival advantage that intact females have over males. Injection of progesterone partially restores this advantage in ovariectomized females and also improves survival in males Bayir et al.
View General Method Researchers used evidence from animal models of TBI—obtained through analyzing sex and sampling female animals in different hormonal states—to devise an experimental treatment for humans.
In double-blind clinical studies, patients who received progesterone shortly after emergency treatment for TBI had lower mortality and showed better recovery of neurological function than control patients with similar injury, and progesterone was well-tolerated Xiao et al.
More research is needed to: Sampling with Attention to Estrous Cycles and Menopause Advances Basic Knowledge of the Immune System By including female mice in experiments, scientists discovered that sex hormones are important to immune system function.
When female mice were exposed to antigens and then sampled during diestrus or estrus, their immune responses in the spleen were similar to those seen in males. But when female mice were sampled during proestrus or metestrus, their antibody counts were more than triple that of males Krzych et al.
By correlating these differences with progesterone and estrogen concentrations which also vary throughout the estrous cycleit was possible to uncover the influence of sex hormones on immune function Bergman et al.
Animal models of menopause—which are still in development see Next Steps below —have shown that immunological changes accompany this hormonal transition.Case studies are used widely in accounting education to promote synthesis and analysis of content and to develop high level professional skills and tools.
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The journal is established to create a platform for researchers, practitioners. Published since ISSN (print), ISSN (online) The Journal of Business Case Studies (JBCS) welcomes case studies designed for use in business and economics courses and articles related to the use of case studies in the classroom.
International Research Journal of Applied Finance (vetconnexx.com) Case Studies in Finance and Accounting 2 Preface This book contains seventeen case studies on various topics in Finance & Accounting. The Journal of Accounting Education (JAEd) is a refereed journal dedicated to promoting and publishing research on accounting education issues and to improving the quality of accounting education worldwide..
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