Socrates is revered for his shifting of Greek philosophical thought from the contemplation of the nature of the universe, which occupied the philosophers before him, to the examination of human life and its problems.
Human beings seem always to have had some notion of a shadowy double that survives the death of the body. But the idea of the soul as a mental entity, with intellectual and moral qualities, interacting with a physical organism but capable of continuing… Many cultures have recognized some incorporeal principle of human life or existence corresponding to the soul, and many have attributed souls to all living things.
There is evidence even among prehistoric peoples of a belief in an aspect distinct from the body and residing in it. Despite widespread and longstanding belief in the existence of a soul, however, different religions and philosophers have developed a variety of theories as to its nature, its relationship to the body, and its origin and mortality.
Among ancient peoples, both the Egyptians and the Chinese conceived of a dual soul. The Egyptian ka breath survived death but remained near the body, while the spiritual ba proceeded to the region of the dead.
The Chinese distinguished between a lower, sensitive soul, which disappears with death, and a rational principle, the hunwhich survives the grave and is the object of ancestor worship. The early Hebrews apparently had a concept of the soul but did not separate it from the body, although later Jewish writers developed the idea of the soul further.
Biblical references to the soul are related to the concept of breath and establish no distinction between the ethereal soul and the corporeal body. Christian concepts of a body-soul dichotomy originated with the ancient Greeks and were introduced into Christian theology at an early date by St.
Gregory of Nyssa and by St. Ancient Greek concepts of the soul varied considerably according to the particular era and philosophical school. The Epicureans considered the soul to be made up of atoms like the rest of the body.
For the Platoniststhe soul was an immaterial and incorporeal substance, akin to the gods yet part of the world of change and becoming. In Christian theology St. However, although body and soul were separate, it was not possible to conceive of a soul without its body.
In the Middle Ages, St. From the Middle Ages onward, the existence and nature of the soul and its relationship to the body continued to be disputed in Western philosophy. To Benedict de Spinozabody and soul formed two aspects of a single reality.
Immanuel Kant concluded that the soul was not demonstrable through reasonalthough the mind inevitably must reach the conclusion that the soul exists because such a conclusion was necessary for the development of ethics and religion.
To William James at the beginning of the 20th century, the soul as such did not exist at all but was merely a collection of psychic phenomena.
Just as there have been different concepts of the relation of the soul to the body, there have been numerous ideas about when the soul comes into existence and when and if it dies.
Ancient Greek beliefs were varied and evolved over time. Pythagoras held that the soul was of divine origin and existed before and after death.
Epicurus believed that both body and soul ended at death. The jiva-atman is also eternal but is imprisoned in an earthly body at birth.
At death the jiva-atman passes into a new existence determined by karmaor the cumulative consequences of actions. The cycle of death and rebirth samsara is eternal according to some Hindus, but others say it persists only until the soul has attained karmic perfection, thus merging with the Absolute brahman.
Buddhism negates the concept not only of the individual self but of the atman as well, asserting that any sense of having an individual eternal soul or of partaking in a persistent universal self is illusory.
The Muslim concept, like the Christian, holds that the soul comes into existence at the same time as the body; thereafter, it has a life of its own, its union with the body being a temporary condition.
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Video: The Immortal Soul: Ideas of Socrates, Plato & Augustine This lesson will explore the concept of the soul as an immortal object. In doing so, it will highlight the theories of Socrates, Plato, and Augustine. The soul may be defined as the ultimate internal principle by which we think, feel, and will, and by which our bodies are animated.
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