The Croats using the Glagolitic alphabet were the only nation in Europe who was given a special permission by Pope Innocent IV in to use their own language and this script in liturgy. More precisely, this permission had formally been given to the bishop Philip of Senj.
Whether HIV infects spermatozoa is controversial. Reports of the removal of infected cells from semen, allowing artificial insemination without seroconversion, support the idea that spermatozoa are not infected. No cases of HIV infection have been traced to saliva or tears .
The virus is found in greater concentration in semen than in vaginal fluids, leading to a hypothesis that male-to-female transmission could occur more easily than female-to-male. Sexual behavior that involves exposure to blood is likely to increase transmission risks.
Transmission could occur through contact with infected bowel epithelial cells in anal intercourse in addition to access to the bloodstream through breaks in the rectal mucosa.
Although all HIV-seropositive people are potentially infectious, there is widespread variation in the seropositivity and seroconversion of their sexual partners.
Factors that could explain this variability include differences in sexual practices and numbers of sexual contacts, susceptibility of the partner, differences in viral strains, changing degrees of infectiousness of the person with HIV over time, co-factors that enhance or limit transmission, genetic resistance, or a combination of Latex dissertation ucla factors.
Posing the highest risk of infection is unprotected anal receptive intercourse, followed by unprotected vaginal intercourse.
Risk is reduced through the use of latex condoms. For the wearer, latex condoms provide a mechanical barrier limiting penile exposure to infectious cervical, vaginal, vulvar, or rectal secretions or lesions. Likewise, the partner is protected from infectious pre-ejaculate, semen, and penile lesions.
Oil-based lubricants may make latex condoms ineffective and should not be used. Water-soluble lubricants are considered safe. Natural membrane condoms made from lamb cecum contain small pores and do not block HIV passage.
Although abstinence from sexual contact is the sole way to absolutely prevent transmission, using a latex condom to prevent transmission of HIV is more than 10, times safer than engaging in unprotected sex .
Sexual activity in a mutually monogamous relationship in which neither partner is HIV-infected and no other risk factors are present is considered safe .
The phenomenon of men who identify publicly as heterosexual and generally have committed relationships with women, but who also engage in sexual activity with other men, termed being on the "down low" or DL, may be a transmission bridge to heterosexual women.
However, it is important to note that men on the "down low" are not the only MSM who report having sexual contact with women. Also, a study of 1, black MSM found that men who identified as "down low" were not more likely to engage in unprotected vaginal or anal sex with women or men . To better understand the actual extent of this behavior and its impact on HIV transmission, more research and studies must be undertaken.
While the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex is much smaller than the risk from anal or vaginal sex, there are several co-factors that can increase this risk, including oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other STIs.
The highest oral sex risk is to individuals performing oral sex on a man with HIV, with ejaculation. Prevention includes the use of a latex or plastic condom on the penis and a cut-open condom or a dental dam used between the mouth and the vagina or anus . In comparison, a milliliter of blood infected with hepatitis B virus has million to 1 billion infective organisms.
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