When people approach a religious text or any large book from which they intend to derive ethical teachings, nearly without exception the person will pick up the book and pay very particular attention to all the morals they already agree with. The philosopher George Smith says that " Christian theologians have a strong tendency to read their own moral convictions into the ethics of Jesus. Jesus is made to say what theologians think he should have said"
Rationalisation Weber argues that the Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther in the 16th Century led to rational ways of thinking replacing supernatural beliefs. It led to the belief that God simply created the world and does not intervene in it.
This is known as disenchantment and it contributed to secularisation as people began to view and understand the world scientifically. The theory only focuses on the West and Catholocism.
Structural Differentiation Structural differentiation is the process of speecialisation that occurs through the development of industrial society.
Parsons argues that this led to religion being being disengaged from modern society. Before the Industrial Revolution religion was the main source of education and social welfare but these functions have been lost to a secular state and religion is now a privatized part on religion that is personal choice.
This is shown by the number of countries that keep religion and the state seperate such as USA, France and Britain. Northern Ireland is an exception. It is modern and industrialised but the Church js closely linked with the state. It caused the break up of small, close-knit communities that often expressed themselves through their religion because therecwas a need for the workforce to geographically mobile move around easily.
This meant that new people with various backgrounds and religious beliefs were entering these communities. Despite the cultural diversity, people may use religion as a form of identity — this links to Huntington and the Clash of Civilisations.
This led to a crisis for credibility and secularisation. Berger changed his mind later on and now argues that religion can stimulate interest and participation — links to spiritual shopping and religious market theory.
Beckford argues that religious diversity has the ability to strengthen faith not always weaken it. Cultural defence is when religion is used as a way defending a culture that is under threat.
For example, in Poland Catholicism was a key part of Polish culture that was being oppressed by a Communist state.
However, some people still practised their religion in secret as it was a way of expressing their culture. The Catholic church eventually played a key part in overthrowing the state which is another example of religious social change. Cultural transition is when religion is used to help with the transition to a new society — mainly used by ethnic minorities.
Although it seems to disprove secularisation, Bruce shows religion only thrives when it provides a function to the individual that is more than relating to the supernatural.
If you look at Poland, now that they are free to practice their religion, church attendance has fallen. What about the people who are not migrants and are not under threat that practice religion continuosly? Heelas and Woodhead had a theory: Traditional religion is declining and being replaced by New Age spirituality such as crystal healing, aromatherapy, self help books etc.
They tested this theory and found out the following: In Cumbria there were two types of groups — the congregational domain traditional religion and the holistic milieu New Age. Despite this, Heelas and Woodhead found that the rise in the New Age was not equal to the fall in tradition.
So the New Age was not replacing traditional religion.
The study is based one country which means that it is not representative and therefore cannot explain the world.Society / Psychology. Homocentricity or Anthropocentrism: Why Do Religions Think Humanity Is Central to God and Creation? () Secularisation Theory: Will Modern Society Reject Religion.
Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.
Summary. It has long been believed that secularisation is the inevitable by-product of Modernisation, and that the rise of modern science, pluralism, and consumerism is sure to usher in the decline of religion.
Jan 13, · Although it seems to disprove secularisation, Bruce shows religion only thrives when it provides a function to the individual that is more than relating to the supernatural.
If you look at Poland, now that they are free to practice their religion, church attendance has fallen. Secularisation theorists, however, generally assume that religion refers to religious institutions, such as churches, and to sets of beliefs.
Building on Max Weber's concepts of enchantment and mystery, a key assumption of this theory is that religion is often irrational, based on superstition and illogical beliefs. Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies progress, particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its authority in all aspects of social life.