Prose of Augustan Age 4. Drama of Augustan Age 4.
Coffee-houses of old London. The establishment of to-day is nothing more than an eating-house of modest pretensions, frequented mostly by the labouring classes. In many cases its internal Steele essayist follow the old-time model, and the imitation extends to the provision of a daily newspaper or two from which customers may glean the news of the day without extra charge.
But the more exalted type of coffee-house has lost its identity in the club. It is generally agreed that was the date of the opening of the first coffee-house in London.
There are, however, still earlier references to the drink itself. For example, Sir Henry Blount wrote from Turkey in to the effect that the natives of that country had a drink called cauphe Also it will be remembered that Evelyn, under daterecorded how a Greek came to Oxford and was the first I ever saw drink coffee.
Whether the distinction of opening the first coffee-house in London belongs to a Mr. Bowman or to a Pasqua Rosee cannot be decided. But all authorities are as one in locating that establishment in St.
The weight of evidence seems to be in favour of Rosee, who was servant to a Turkey merchant named Edwards. Having acquired the coffee-drinking habit in Turkey, Mr.
Edwards was accustomed to having his servant prepare the beverage for him in his London house, and the new drink speedily attracted a levee of curious onlookers and tasters. Evidently the company grew too large to be convenient, and at this juncture Mr.
Edwards suggested that Rosee should set up as a vendor Steele essayist the drink. He did so, and a copy of the prospectus he issued on the occasion still exists.
It set forth at great length the virtue of the Coffee Drink First publiquely made and sold in England by Pasqua Rosee, the berry of which was described as a simple innocent thing but yielding a liquor of countless merits.
But Rosee was frank as to its drawbacks; it will prevent drowsiness, he continued, and make one fit for business, if one have occasion to watch; and therefore you are not to drink it after supper, unless you intend to be watchful, for it will hinder sleep for three or four hours. That Pasqua Rosee prospered amazingly in St.
By the end of the century it was computed that the coffee-houses of London numbered nearly three thousand. But there were days of tribulation to be passed through before that measure of success was attained. In eight years after Rosee had opened his establishment the consumption of coffee in England had evidently increased to a notable extent, for in the House of Commons is found granting to Charles II for life the excise duty on coffee and other outlandish drinks.
But it is a curious fact that while the introduction of tea was accepted with equanimity by the community, the introduction of coffee was strenuously opposed for more than a decade. Poets and pamphleteers combined to decry the new beverage.
The rhyming author of A Cup of Coffee, or Coffee in its Colourspublished invoiced his indignation thus: By way of climax this opponent of the new drink appealed to the shades of Ben Jonson and other libation-loving poets, and recalled how they, as source of inspiration, drank pure nectar as the Gods drink too.
Three years later a dramatist seems to have tried his hand at depicting the new resort on the stage, for Pepys tells how in October,he saw a play called The Coffee-House. But there was nothing insipid about the pamphlet which, under the title of The Character of a Coffee-House, issued from the press seven years later.
The author withheld his name, and was wise in so doing, for his cuts and thrusts with his pen would have brought down upon him as numerous cuts and thrusts with a more dangerous weapon had his identity been known.
A coffee-house, he wrote, is a lay-conventicle, good-fellowship turned puritan, ill-husbandry in masquerade; whither people come, after toping all day, to purchase, at the expense of their last penny, the repute of sober companions: He, that comes often, saves two-pence a week in Gazettes, and has his news and his coffee for the same charge, as at a three-penny ordinary they give in broth to your chop of mutton; it is an exchange where haberdashers of political smallwares meet, and mutually abuse each other, and the public, with bottomless stories, and headless notions; the rendezvous of idle pamphlets, and persons more idly employed to read them; a high court of justice, where every little fellow in a camlet cloke takes upon him to transpose affairs both in church and state, to shew reasons against acts of parliament, and condemn the decrees of general councils.
Having indulged in that trenchant generalization, this vigorous assailant proceeded to describe a coffee-house in detail. There is a delightful sketch of one named Captain All-man-sir, as big a boaster as Falstaff, and a more delicately etched portrait of the Town Wit, who is summed up as the jack-pudding of society in the judgment of all wise men, but an incomparable wit in his own.
The peroration of this pamphlet, devoted to a wholesale condemnation of the coffee-house, indulges in too frank and unsavoury metaphors for modern re-publication.B.A.I ENGLISH LITERATURE PAPER-II (PROSE) MM.
50 Unit-I Ten short answer questions based on the entire course Unit-II Types of Prose and Prose Style. An Extensive List of Notable Black/Non-Black Interracial Couples, by Robert Fikes Jr., Librarian San Diego State University: The cold statistics accompanying periodic census reports revealing dramatic increases in the number of interracial marriages may be adequate for the casual reader and the researcher, but statistics do not put a human .
B.A.I ENGLISH LITERATURE PAPER-II (PROSE) MM.
50 Unit-I Ten short answer questions based on the entire course Unit-II Types of Prose and Prose Style. Editor: Andris Taskans. Andris Taskans is the founding editor of Prairie Fire magazine and a founding member of the Manitoba Writers’ Guild.. Assistant Editor: Lindsey Childs.
Lindsey was Office Manager for The Arts And Cultural Industries of Manitoba for four years before joining Prairie Fire. She was also a student in our Practicum in Publishing Communication and Leadership.
An Extensive List of Notable Black/Non-Black Interracial Couples, by Robert Fikes Jr., Librarian San Diego State University: The cold statistics accompanying periodic census reports revealing dramatic increases in the number of interracial marriages may be adequate for the casual reader and the researcher, but statistics do not put a human face on this modern phenomenon.
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