Complexity[ edit ] The relationship between a nation in the ethnic sense and a state can be complex. The presence of a state can encourage ethnogenesisand a group with a pre-existing ethnic identity can influence the drawing of territorial boundaries or to argue for political legitimacy. This definition of a "nation-state" is not universally accepted. Connor, who gave the term " ethnonationalism " wide currency, also discusses the tendency to confuse nation and state and the treatment of all states as if nation states.
Prior to the s, in Europe, the nation-state as we know it did not exist. Back then, most people did not consider themselves part of a nation; they rarely left their village and knew little of the larger world. If anything, people were more likely to identify themselves with their region or local lord.
At the same time, the rulers of states frequently had little control over their countries. Instead, local feudal lords had a great deal of power, and kings often had to depend on the goodwill of their subordinates to rule.
Laws and practices varied a great deal from one part of the country to another. The timeline on page 65 explains some key events that led to the rise of the nation-state.
In the early modern era, a number of monarchs began to consolidate power by weakening the feudal nobles and allying themselves with the emerging commercial classes. This difficult process sometimes required violence.
The consolidation of power also took a long time.
Kings and queens worked to bring all the people of their territories under unified rule. Not surprisingly, then, the birth of the nation-state also saw the first rumblings of nationalism, as monarchs encouraged their subjects to feel loyalty toward the newly established nations.
The modern, integrated nation-state became clearly established in most of Europe during the nineteenth century. Russia is a great example of consolidation of power by monarchs. Throughout most of the medieval era, what became Russia was a minor principality centered on the city of Moscow.
Over the course of a few hundred years, the rulers of Moscow took over more land, eventually expanding to cover much of what is now Russia.
This expansion came through a mix of diplomacy and war. When Ivan IV—also known as Ivan the Terrible—came of age and assumed the throne inhe was crowned the first czar. He proceeded to devastate the nobility by means of a secret police and gained the loyalty of commercial classes by giving them positions in a new state bureaucracy.
These actions led to the deaths of thousands. The Catholic Church and the Rise of the Nation-State Newly emerging nation-states in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had a complex relationship with the predominant transnational power of the time, the Catholic Church.
At times, partial nation-states were useful tools for the Catholic Church. On several occasions, for example, France and Spain intervened in Italy at the invitation of the Pope.
But some monarchs wanted control over their national churches in order to get absolute power. This break with the Catholic Church gave the English something to rally around, thus encouraging them to develop loyalty toward the English nation-state.
At the same time, some devout Catholics in England refused to convert; their displeasure ultimately led to repression and civil war. Despite a brutal war, the Catholics were unable to overturn Protestantism. The treaty that ended the war, called the Peace of Westphalia, decreed that the sovereign ruler of a state had power over all elements of both the nation and the state, including religion.
Thus, the modern idea of a sovereign state was born. Centralization Centralization, or the process by which law- and policymaking become centrally located, helped spur the development of nation-states.
Final power rested with the central government, which made the laws and practices more uniform across the country.
A single centralized authority, rather than many diverse local authorities, allowed nation-states to quickly develop their economies. Merchants could trade throughout the nation without worrying about local taxes and regulations.
Also, the nation-state was much stronger militarily than the feudal state. Rulers were able to create national armies, which were not dependent on the nobility. The armies could receive consistent training so that all units could work well together.
In many cases, the newly emerging nation-states dominated the older forms of political organization. In the eighteenth century, nobles held most of the power in Poland. The monarch was very weak. As a result, Poland could not defeat its powerful neighbors Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
These three centralized nation-states partitioned Poland on three different occasions—,and —eventually eliminating Poland untilwhen a new Republic of Poland formed.
The Importance of Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte was a key figure in the development of the nation-state. Amid the chaos of the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century, most remaining medieval and feudal laws were overturned and a truly national law code was established. Similarly, a national military was created.
In many places, the people rallied together as a nation in order to defeat Napoleon.Lincoln invokes the Declaration of Independence as the origin of the American nation and source for the conjoined principles of liberty and equality.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and has formed a state (often a sovereign state) that it predominantly governs.
The origins of the United Kingdom can be traced to the time of the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan, who in the early 10th century ce secured the allegiance of neighbouring Celtic kingdoms and became “the first to rule what previously many kings shared between them,” in the words of a contemporary chronicle.
The gun salute became the highest honor a nation rendered. Varying customs among the maritime powers led to confusion in saluting and return of salutes.
Great Britain, the world's preeminent seapower in the 18th and 19th centuries, compelled weaker nations to salute first, and for a time monarchies received more guns than did republics. Modern Israel has its origins in the Zionism movement, established in the late 19th century by Jews in the Russian Empire who called for the establishment of a territorial Jewish state after.